When I was a student, I found about an author who proposed a theory with 6 cultural dimensions which can be assessed for each country. Geert Hofstede is the author's name and his model describes a society based on the values of its members.
Based on a lot of research on this area, the theory grew and the nowadays model is as it follows:
- Power distance - the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. A higher degree of this indicates that hierarchy is clearly established and executed in society. A lower degree of this index signifies that people question authority and attempt to distribute power.
- Individualism vs. Collectivism - the degree to which people in a society are integrated into groups. Individualistic societies have loose ties that often only relate an individual to his/her immediate family. They emphasize the “I” versus the “we.” The collectivism describes a society in which tightly-integrated relationships tie extended families and others into in-groups.
- Uncertainty avoidance - a society's tolerance for ambiguity, in which people embrace or avert an event of something unexpected, unknown, or away from the status quo. Societies that score a high degree in this index opt for stiff codes of behavior, guidelines, laws, and generally rely on absolute truth, or the belief that one lone truth dictates everything and people know what it is. A lower degree in this index shows more acceptance of differing thoughts or ideas.
- Masculinity vs. Femininity - masculinity is defined as a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness and material rewards for success. Its counterpart represents a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. In feminine societies, they share modest and caring views equally with men. In more masculine societies, women are somewhat assertive and competitive, but notably less than men.
- Long-term orientation vs. short-term orientation - the connection of the past with the current and future actions/challenges. A lower degree of this index (short-term) indicates that traditions are honored and kept, while steadfastness is valued. Societies with a high degree in this index (long-term) view adaptation and circumstantial, pragmatic problem-solving as a necessity.
- Indulgence vs. restraint - the degree of freedom that societal norms give to citizens in fulfilling their human desires. Indulgence is defined as a society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human desires related to enjoying life and having fun. Its counterpart is defined as a society that controls the gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms.
Curious about how is Romania accordingly to Hofstede's model?
You can search on its website